Source : freepik

The stock market is dynamic and thrives on a relentless pulse, but it also takes breaks on some days.

Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) provides information on market-specific closures and holidays to be implemented on all the stock exchanges. The US stock market majorly has two exchanges: NYSE and NASDAQ.

  • New York Stock Exchange (NYSE): It is the largest and oldest stock exchange founded in 1792. Popular tech stocks like Apple, ExxonMobil, and Microsoft are listed here. It has more than 2,400 share listings with $22.649 trillion of market capitalization.
  • Nasdaq: Founded in 1971, this exchange became quickly famous for its tech giants listing from Amazon to Google. It has a total of 3438 stock listings with a market capitalization of $26.69 trillion.

Stock Market Holidays For 2024

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In 2024, financial markets in the United States will observe several holidays, during which trading activities will be suspended. These holidays, both national and observance days, directly affect the financial markets throughout the year.

Here is a comprehensive list of stock market holidays in 2024, providing insight into the days when the major exchanges will be closed completely:

  • Monday, January 1: New Year's Day
  • Monday, January 15: Martin Luther King Jr. Day
  • Monday, February 19: Presidents' Day
  • Friday, March 29: Good Friday
  • Monday, May 27: Memorial Day
  • Wednesday, June 19: Juneteenth National Independence Day
  • Thursday, July 4: Independence Day
  • Monday, September 2: Labor Day
  • Thursday, November 28: Thanksgiving Day
  • Monday, November 11: Veterans Day
  • Wednesday, December 25: Christmas Day

Additional Bond Market Holidays:

  • Monday, Oct. 14, 2024: Columbus Day
  • Monday, Nov. 11, 2024: Veterans Day

Early Market Closures

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Stock markets may have early closures on certain days throughout the year. These early closures often occur on the business day preceding or following major holidays. While specific hours can vary, early closures typically mean that trading concludes earlier than the regular closing time. Some common occasions for early market closures include:

  • Tuesday, July 3: Day before Independence Day (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Friday, November 29: Day after Thanksgiving (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Tuesday, December 24: Christmas Eve (closes at 2 pm ET)

Bond Market Early Closures 2024

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While the entire US bond market doesn't close as frequently as the stock market, it does have several early closure days throughout the year. These bond early closures happen on the following dates in 2024:

  • Friday, March 28: Day before Good Friday (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Friday, May 24: Friday before Memorial Day (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Tuesday, July 3: Day before Independence Day (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Friday, November 29: Day after Thanksgiving (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Tuesday, December 24: Christmas Eve (closes at 2 pm ET)
  • Monday, December 31: New Year's Eve (closes at 2 pm ET)

Some individual bond trading platforms might have slightly different holiday schedules. It is always best to check with your broker or the platform's website for the most accurate information.

Early closures don't affect the settlement of trades. Even though trading stops at 2:00 pm on early closure days, trades that are already in the process of being settled will still be completed.

What Is Regular Trading Hours For The US Stock Market

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The regular trading hours for the U.S. stock market, which includes the Nasdaq Stock Market (Nasdaq) and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), are 9:30 am to 4:00 pm Eastern Time (ET), except on stock market holidays.

Here's a quick breakdown of the different trading sessions:

  • Pre-market session: This session runs from 4:00 am to 9:30 am ET and allows for limited trading activity.
  • Regular trading session: This is the main trading session when most of the activity takes place, running from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm ET.
  • After-hours session: This session runs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 pm ET and allows for limited trading activity again.

Does The Type of Holiday Influence Market Performance

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Studies have offered mixed results, and the impact likely depends on a variety of factors. Different holidays, whether they are national, cultural, or religious, can have varying impacts on financial markets.

Here are some ways in which the type of holiday may influence market performance:

National Holidays: On national holidays, financial markets are typically closed. This closure results in a halt to trading activities, affecting liquidity and trading volumes.

Patriotic holidays: Events like Independence Day or Memorial Day may see increased market optimism and potentially higher trading volume due to a surge in national pride and consumer spending.

Religious holidays: Some studies suggest lower trading volume and potentially muted performance around major religious holidays like Christmas or Easter, possibly due to decreased market participation and investor focus on family gatherings.

Other Holidays:

  • Labor Day: This marks the unofficial end of summer and can see lower trading volume due to vacations and leisure activities.
  • Black Friday: The post-Thanksgiving shopping frenzy can influence retail stocks and potentially boost consumer-based sectors.

Is It Possible To Trade On Stock Market Holidays

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The possibility of trading on stock market holidays in the US largely depends on the specific holiday and the type of trading you are interested in:

Full Closures:

  • On major holidays like New Year's Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas Day, both the NYSE and Nasdaq are entirely closed, meaning no trading activity is possible.
  • These holidays tend to fall on weekdays, causing a complete pause in the market for one or two days.

Early Closures:

  • Some holidays like Independence Day and Christmas Eve have early closures for the NYSE and Nasdaq at 2:00 p.m. ET.
  • During these days, you can still trade until the closing time, but after that, the markets will be inactive until the next regular trading session.

Pre-Market and After-Hours Sessions:

  • Some exchanges do offer pre-market and after-hours sessions around regular trading days, including Saturdays and Sundays.
  • However, even on these days, holidays generally lead to limited or no pre-market and after-hours trading activity.

Alternative Trading Options:

  • For international investors or those interested in other asset classes, some foreign markets or alternative investments like options on futures contracts might be open for trading even on US stock market holidays.
  • These options require different platforms and carry unique risks, so thorough research is crucial before considering them.

Does The Stock Market Ever Close Unexpectedly Due to Non-Scheduled Events

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The US stock market, particularly the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Nasdaq takes great pride in its stability and adherence to a regular trading schedule. However, completely unforeseen events can occasionally lead to unexpected closures. While rare, these shutdowns happen to ensure market stability and protect investors in times of extreme uncertainty or disruption.

Regulatory bodies like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have strict protocols in place to address such situations and minimize disruptions. In most cases, if a non-scheduled closure becomes necessary, investors would receive ample warning and clear communication from the exchanges and authorities.

Is Stock Market Open On July 3

The US stock market (NYSE and Nasdaq) will be open on July 3rd, 2024, but with an early closure. Specifically, they will close at 1:00 PM Eastern Time (ET) instead of the usual 4:00 PM ET.

This early closure falls under the category of pre-holiday closures implemented for major holidays like Independence Day (July 4th). It allows traders to settle any open positions early and avoid potential volatility associated with the holiday.

Is The Stock Market Open on Columbus Day (October 14th, 2024)

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Columbus Day is a federal holiday in the US, it is not considered a trading holiday for the major stock exchanges. This means that regular trading activity takes place just like on any other weekday.

The stock market including major exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ are open and operating normally. However, the bond market is closed on this day.

However, keep in mind that:

  • Trading volume might be lower than usual as many businesses and government offices are closed on the holiday.
  • Some individual stocks or sectors might see specific movements related to the holiday or its surrounding events.
  • The bond market is closed on Columbus Day. So, if you invest in bonds, be aware that trading won't be possible on October 14th.